This article will be all about the step by step procedure of phlebotomy. Phlebotomy is the process of extracting blood from the vein or the skin of the patient for analysis and series of tests. To properly perform phlebotomy, the phlebotomist should follow these steps:
- Recognize the patient – it is very important to know and verify the name of the patient and the date of birth for identification purposes. For patients admitted in the hospital, they are being recognized through their wristbands
- Give assurance to the patient – you need to inform the patient about the blood requirements that is needed for the test
- Be organized – make sure that you already prepared the necessary materials to be used
- Correct positioning – you should guide and instruct the patient for the appropriate arm position in order to get the blood specimen accurately
- Keep a sharp mind and keen eye – before you perform phlebotomy, you have to identify the correct vein for vein puncture in order to avoid any circumstances such as injury, pain and swelling. The most common veins that are used to extract the blood are the large basilic, and cepahalic and median cubital veins.
- Be gentle – place the tourniquet above the extraction site and should not be kept more than one minute. If the procedure will take place after one minute, remove the tourniquet for 2 minutes then put it again before the procedure.
- Cleansing – sanitize and clean the extraction site using a cotton ball and antiseptic to wipe out dirt and bacteria. This should be done in a circular cycle starting from inside then out to avoid contamination of the specimen. Keep your hands off the extraction site. You should wait for the extraction area to dry before you continue the procedure.
- Proceed with the vein puncture – in order to perform phlebotomy well, insert the needle below the extraction site, keeping the needle along the line of the vein. With a swift and careful thrust, move the needle into the vein. Extract the blood and remove the tourniquet. Put cotton on the extraction site and then quickly release the needle. With a little pressure, massage the site until bleeding stops. And then put a bandage on it.
- Specimen transfer – choose the proper container or tube for the blood sample to avoid contamination
- Proper labeling – properly label the tube with patient’s identification
- Proper disposal – properly dispose the used syringe and needle to avoid the spread of infection and diseases and to avoid contamination as well
- Testing and analysis – this is the last step that you will do after you perform phlebotomy. You should immediately bring the blood specimen to the laboratory for examination.
To successfully perform phlebotomy, you must understand the concept and analyze how these steps were properly done. This is not just a simple blood extraction. This is for a successful specimen analysis and diagnosis.